Set a namespace/prefix on an element if it is not set already. also defined in this same schema definition. There is a button called 'Declare' (present in free version of SOAP UI also), it automatically declares all the namespaces of SOAP response. So middleware need to add those namespace and send it to target system with expected format. As of the last update of this document, the XML 1. The assumption is I create a namespace only if I own the domain it uses and that I won't use the same identifier to identify several different things. The XML namespace is a special type of reserved XML attribute that you place in an XML tag. Without the use of namespaces, an application processing the XML document in Example 3-2 would not know whether the tag refers to a company or employee address. 1 An example demonstrating the need for namespaces. A QName concisely associates the URI of an XML namespace with the local name of an element, attribute, or identifier in that namespace. How to remove namespace coming after using FOR xml AUTO sql server [Answered] RSS 6 replies Last post Sep 05, 2014 05:11 PM by A2H. XML Schema is commonly known as XML Schema Definition (XSD). It is a question of how to use XPath with multiple embedded namespaces. RemoveNamespace Removes the given namespace for the given prefix. 0 processing This didn't exactly happen. An XML namespace has a namespace name (a URI) and a set of local names (NCNames as defined in [XML Namespaces]). First, I present a solution written in code and then an example UI for the end user. What's the big deal about namespaces? As Ian explains, they're critical to the functioning of XML. It does not make much sense usually to try to remove/strip namespaces from an XML document. The System. …In my data provider projects, data folder, I have a file called ns customers. XML Namespace processing should be layered on top of XML 1. Colon before text prefix name and colon after text element or attribute name. Seems easy enough… so let’s have a look at the schema first:. This command allows multiple XML files with the same namespace to use multiple XML schemas. As of the last update of this document, the XML 1. >>i want to add the following Namespace in my XML If you use CreateElement() method to create your node, you can use its thirty overridden method: public virtual XmlElement CreateElement(string prefix, string localName, string namespaceURI);. Therefore the fully qualified name of a “Band” node was an empty string, i. You need to add namespace to Xml element or attribute. And the "problem in parsing" a document with namespaces can usually easily be solved as they are usually caused by a lack of understanding of how XPath works or how the DOM works to find or create elements/attributes in a namespace. If you are working with a schema that makes use of namespaces then XML Data Binding will save you a great deal of. [ Definition : An expanded name is a pair consisting of a namespace name and a local name. XML namespaces play an important role in SOAP messages. A namespace is a set of names where every name is unique. In a previous post I covered how to use namespace qualification with JAXB. When you use multiple namespaces in an XML document, you can define one namespace as the default namespace to create a cleaner looking document. A lot of questions about XPath expressions not returning the expected results seem to be related to the (ab)use of Namespaces and mostly by so-called "Default Namespaces". A XAML namespace is an extension of the concept of an XML namespace. These days XML data is used extensively in applications. Although it's increasingly rare to see XML documents without namespaces, there still seems to be some confusion related to their proper use in different technologies. XPath and Default Namespace handling. If you are creating and modifying XML documents validating against XML Schema making use of namespaces, then XML Data Binding will save you a great deal of time as. p-namespace replaces tag of XML. That will do the trick :-) foreach (XElement XE in Xml. Stack Exchange network consists of 175 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers. XML Namespaces. How can I add two or more namespace on root element in a XML Document? In Java, I create the XMLNode with two namespace and then I set it as root element in a XML Document. Just do a string. This namespace resolver can be used with any XML file where namespace definitions have been used. We will be covering the basics of namespace, including declaration methods, scope, attribute namespace, and default namespace. The registry is global, and any existing mapping for either the given prefix or the namespace URI will be removed. the tag does not exist in xml namespace 'clr-namespace. I am trying to read a series of XML files that use a namespace and I have failed, thus far, to discover the proper syntax. The word namespace can refer to either a traditional namespace or an XML namespace, depending on context, but will generally refer to an XML namespace. Namespaces are a mechanism for managing names in a distributed way that greatly reduces the likelihood that two independent parties will create the same name for different purposes. XML Namespace with Example in Hindi | How to Resolve Element Name Conflict Like Us on Facebook - https://goo. The Namespace specification allows a single XML document to contain tags and attributes from any number of namespaces, without conflicts. An XML namespace allows us to qualify an element in the same way as telephone area codes qualify phone numbers. Elements and attributes name along with namespace have exactly one colon. We applied the prefix when we defined the namespace, and we applied a prefix to each element that referred to the namespace. The document we created in the post referenced above had no namespaces at all. Therefore, namespaces assist in the development of a library of XML Schemas that can be developed independently. You can think of element names as first names and XML namespaces as Sir names. [Definition: An XML namespace is identified by an IRI reference ; element and attribute names may be placed in an XML namespace using the mechanisms described in this specification. Please help Thanks in Advance. As you know the Network Configuration for Azure if not done through the portal is done through an XML file. The namespaces we created in the previous two lessons involved applying a prefix. The answer is that you have to name every tags namespace alias and be sure to give the default namespace an alias. …This file has the same data structure as the…other XML file, but it has a namespace declaration,…with the namespace string here, and. The example declares the following XML namespaces:. "Recommendation" is the final step in the W3C process; the status means that the document is done, frozen, agreed-upon and official. This is not covered in the JAXB specification but I will demonstrate the extensions available in both the reference and EclipseLink MOXy implementations for handling this use case. It does not make much sense usually to try to remove/strip namespaces from an XML document. In writing XSD schemas, you can use the XSD targetNamespace attribute to specify a target namespace. the tag does not exist in xml namespace 'clr-namespace. April 13, 2005. Bean Lifecycle. This namespace resolver can be used with any XML file where namespace definitions have been used. Before you begin, note that DataWeave 2. but as of now i am not able to convert the XML payload into the expected XML out. A QName, or qualified name, is the fully qualified name of an element, attribute, or identifier in an XML document. Namespaces like in every language provides a way to avoid conflict with element names. XmlTextReader provides direct parsing and tokenizing of XML and implements the XML specification as well as the namespaces in the XML specification from the W3C. Bob DuCharme. In order for XML documents to be able to use elements and attributes that have the same name but come from different sources, there must be a way to differentiate between the markup elements that come from the different sources. Therefore the fully qualified name of a “Band” node was an empty string, i. There are also three built in values ##any, ##other, ##targetnamespace, ##local. com" namespace. Spring Security XML Namespace Configuration. XML Namespaces have the form of the letters XMLNS and then equal to some character string. You can think of element names as first names and XML namespaces as Sir names. We applied the prefix when we defined the namespace, and we applied a prefix to each element that referred to the namespace. Note: is a top-level element, and must be a child node of or. Spring Security XML Namespace Configuration. Prefix name associated with the same URI are in the same namespace. In fact no unprefixed attribute is ever in a namespace, primarily because XML originally didn't have namespaces, and all XML from that time had to stay in no namespace. "Recommendation" is the final step in the W3C process; the status means that the document is done, frozen, agreed-upon and official. This is a pretty simple blog, addressing a very frequently asked question on XI forum as to how to remove the namespaces from the XML output of Message Mapping. XML tag names should be globally unique, as well as short for performance reasons. XML Namespaces Introduction. …Now if I want to create an XML document that includes…tags from different tag sets. Elements and attributes name along with namespace have exactly one colon. 0 ) is for Mule 4 apps. The namespaces we created in the previous two lessons involved applying a prefix. XML namespaces are used for providing uniquely named elements and attributes in an XML document. It does not make much sense usually to try to remove/strip namespaces from an XML document. NET Web API [Answered] RSS. The answer is that you have to name every tags namespace alias and be sure to give the default namespace an alias. January 19, 1999. If you want to use another API then tell us which one exactly and we can tell you how to look for namespace declarations (hint: in the XPath data. I assume that problem is with namespaces and strong typing of the xml. com is an HTML User's Guide and quick reference of HTML elements and attributes for web developers who code HTML web pages, not only for HTML 5 but for HTML coding in general, with demos and examples of HTML code plus a cheat sheet for web developers. Returns a list of (optionally) encoded strings containing the XML data. XML document format has been stylized by the same people responsible for HTML, so you may find syntactical similarities in elements of the format. Creating unique names in JSON documents is probably a worthy endeavor, particularly if you will be merging JSON objects. In Spring Framework, A namespace element is nothing but it is a more concise way of configuring an individual bean or, more powerfully, to define an alternative configuration syntax. The next example show you how to implement this in BPEL. You need to add namespace to Xml element or attribute. Various reasons require this. Here we will see how can we add Namespace to an XML. Hi gurus, i have imported an XSD file as an external definition and use this for a mapping. What's the big deal about namespaces? As Ian explains, they're critical to the functioning of XML. Namespaces and default namespace One of the commonly asked questions about XmlStarlet 'select' or 'edit' options is: "Why nothing matched for my XPath expression which seems right to me?". An XML document can contains wide variety of data. I need to map xml payload such that the actual value of tag is added inside content tag and data type is mapped under type. After the namespace prefix is defined, you must set up the elements that use the namespace. Seems easy enough… so let’s have a look at the schema first:. The size of spring config using p namespace is typically less than one with using property tag Trail Tip: It is very important to discuss upfront which of the approaches ( property tag or p namespace) would be used in a project so that inconsistency of declaration is. Namespaces prevent element and attribute name collisions,. You can also define namespaces against a child node. XMLConstants; import org. Shredding XML ‘Shredding’ XML data is another common request. Explicitly providing the XMLConstants. The actor Attribute. 0 specification, and all tokens other than element and attribute names which are REQUIRED, for XML 1. Mark Walter. There are also no reserved words as such in the user namespace of XML: you can call an element element and an attribute attribute and so on as in the following (perverse) example:. Namespaces are used when you want both unique names for a large collection of things plus a convenient way of referring to each thing. In XML, the XML namespace specification enables the names of elements and attributes in an XML document to be unique, similar to the role of namespaces in programming languages. Before you begin, note that DataWeave 2. register_namespace(prefix, uri)¶ Registers a namespace prefix. Attribute with Namespace: 4. In writing XSD schemas, you can use the XSD targetNamespace attribute to specify a target namespace. the tag does not exist in xml namespace 'clr-namespace. With it, you can export a specified DFS namespace to an XML text file and later import this information back into a new DFS root. Schema element supports Namespaces. LocalName; // replacing all attributes with attributes that are not namespaces and their names are set to only the localname XE. We reviewed the XmlWriter class that is used to write XML. Excel overwrites existing namespace prefixes. (0120) 425-6464. The "Namespaces in XML" specification has been formally adopted by the W3C as a recommendation from its members and its director, Tim Berners-Lee, paving the way for vendors to create software that will more easily support the rich markup vocabularies made possible by XML. Back to XPath ↑ Question. Just writing the title made me cry a little bit out of boredom. So far, we have not created namespaces with our schemas. Versions of SVG viewers prior to the release of Firefox 1. Remove namespace from XML - C# code Namespace URI to replace with. Most XML-based standards in education (e. XML was designed to be a very robust markup language that could be used in many different applications. Let's start:. If you are creating and modifying XML documents validating against XML Schema making use of namespaces, then XML Data Binding will save you a great deal of time as. The assumption is I create a namespace only if I own the domain it uses and that I won't use the same identifier to identify several different things. Here is an XML fragment using title within a bibliography. The Cover Pages is a comprehensive Web-accessible reference collection supporting the SGML/XML family of (meta) markup language standards and their application. We will still use the same xml document example as listed below. Namespaces and XSLT Stylesheets. iBasskung 30,703,732 views. Access elements from document with namespaces: 7. XML Namespaces is among the shortest XML-related specifications and can be read in about fifteen minutes. If an element is specified in a new Namespace then pass that JDOM2 Namespace object when searching for that element. After declaring the namespaces using this 'Declare', mention the xpath of the node whose value is to be validated. The targetNamespace declares a namespace for other xml and xsd documents to refer to this schema. table tag is common in HTML for displaying data in tabular format. XML Namespaces is among the shortest XML-related specifications and can be read in about fifteen minutes. SQL Server also manage XML data efficiently to fetch data from XML content. The OpenAPI 3 format offers a special xml object to help you fine-tune representation of XML data. Although it's increasingly rare to see XML documents without namespaces, there still seems to be some confusion related to their proper use in different technologies. On the output side of the map, you must specify the prefixes that are used with the namespaces. He reveals what they are and how they work, and throws in a few handy tips along the way. However, with XML being able to communicate between so many different platforms, there is one problem that tends to occur. first 3 letters of xsd file name). " One of the primary motivations for defining an XML. You're missing two fundamental points about XML namespaces: (1) All used XML namespaces must be declared; (2) Namespaced component names are, by definition, fundamentally different component names than non-namespaced component names. Namespaces and default namespace One of the commonly asked questions about XmlStarlet 'select' or 'edit' options is: "Why nothing matched for my XPath expression which seems right to me?". Here, provide namespace in java class as mycustomer, which has included in xml at line no 2. The example declares the following XML namespaces:. The majority of XML documents are namespace qualified, yet most XML binding examples do not demonstrate namespaces (sometimes because the XML binding solution does not support them). When we defined the namespace, we defined it against the root element. Namespaces are a mechanism for managing names in a distributed way that greatly reduces the likelihood that two independent parties will create the same name for different purposes. This is the model presented by DOM. It is a question of how to use XPath with multiple embedded namespaces. The following instructions assume you have already downloaded the latest version of the PDS4 master schema (or the specific version you're working with, if not the latest release), and have added an XML Catalog entry to use it to define the PDS namespace, as described in Configuring XML Schema validation. also defined in this same schema definition. XML namespaces differ from the namespaces conventionally used in computing disciplines in that the XML version has internal structure and is not, mathematically speaking, a set. Many documents use prefixes to denote elements in a namespace, and this explicit notation of namespaces doesn't typically lead to confusion. Although it is often a URL, whatever document might be available at this URL is irrelevant and is not consulted during XML processing. Firstly the full namespacing rules are rather complicated, so this will just be an overview. The final option is to strip the Namespaces using Regex. Every implementation of the SAX2 XMLReader interface is required to support Namespace processing in its default state. xml_namespace_prefix Specifies a prefix to be mapped and associated with the namespace URI value specified in xml_namespace_uri. Additionally, many XML readers allow Namespace. NIEM requires that each XML Schema must have its own target namespace to provide unambiguous identification of content, so include statements may not be used. There is a button called 'Declare' (present in free version of SOAP UI also), it automatically declares all the namespaces of SOAP response. The in-scope default namespace can be overridden by providing a new default namespace declaration on a descendant element. Ebase supports XML READ and WRITE functions using XMLCustomResource and CALL function WebServicesCustomResource that is available as a separate download from the standard Ebase distribution. Jesper Tverskov, Marts 15, 2011. This is just an identifier , chosen to be unique. An XML document can contains wide variety of data. With the help of URI, a namespace ensures the uniqueness of XML elements, tags, and attributes. @namespace is an at-rule that defines XML namespaces to be used in a CSS style sheet. The assumption is I create a namespace only if I own the domain it uses and that I won't use the same identifier to identify several different things. 1 Specification Second edition) defines two attribute names in this namespace: xml:lang Designed for identifying the human language used in the scope of the element to which it's attached. It is used to describe and validate the structure and the content of XML data. January 14th saw the arrival of a new W3C Recommendation, Namespaces in XML. (0120) 425-6464. XML HOME XML Introduction XML How to use XML Tree XML Syntax XML Elements XML Attributes XML Namespaces XML Display XML HttpRequest XML target namespace to a. The names of all elements in a document that conforms to the Namespaces in the XML namespace specification are QNames. I assume that problem is with namespaces and strong typing of the xml. On the output side of the map, you must specify the prefixes that are used with the namespaces. XML Namespaces Name Conflicts. XML namespaces per se don't define any way to associate resources such as schemas or documentations with a namespace URI. However, this flexibility can cause some problems with processing. WITH XMLNAMESPACES lets you include XML namespaces in FOR XML queries. So, been doing a lot of work in Azure lately and having to solve problems I have not had to deal with before. Dare Obasanjo writes: "XML namespaces are an integral aspect of most of the W3C's XML recommendations and working drafts, including XPath, XML Schema, XSLT, XQuery, SOAP, RDF, DOM, and XHTML. Creating unique names in JSON documents is probably a worthy endeavor, particularly if you will be merging JSON objects. Removing name spaces from your XML payload is sometimes needed. com" namespace. XML Explicitly Using a Non-default Namespace. Although it is often a URL, whatever document might be available at this URL is irrelevant and is not consulted during XML processing. …These namespaces are also very well documented…on how to configure them because up until…Spring 32, XML was really the primary way…that we always configured our application context. table tag is common in HTML for displaying data in tabular format. This is part 2 of the “XML Namespaces” chapter I wrote for Advanced XML Applications from the Experts at The XML Guild (published by Thomson). The example declares the following XML namespaces:. Namespaces like in every language provides a way to avoid conflict with element names. A QName, or qualified name, is the fully qualified name of an element, attribute, or identifier in an XML document. 2 replies Last post Oct 27, 2014 04:49 AM by Shawn - MSFT ‹ Previous Thread | Next. XML Namespaces. How do i deserialize the above XML, so that I don't loose any of the additional namespaces? with what I have, I ran a test 1. Let's start:. This feature is not available right now. A SOAP message may include several different XML elements in the Header and Body elements, and to avoid name collisions each of these elements should be identified by a unique namespace. In this java example, we will learn XPath namespace resolution into an XML file using NamespaceContext which has namespace declarations and respective usages. NET Framework provides a dedicated namespace to work with XML documents called the System. (4) XML namespace: In XML, a namespace is a collection of names, identified by a URI reference, that are used in XML documents as element types and attributenames. But the resulting XML contains repeating namespace declarations for each element, instead of a "common" declaration at the root element. Michael Day. Although it's increasingly rare to see XML documents without namespaces, there still seems to be some confusion related to their proper use in different technologies. I also tried to remove it from the xsd, but each time I import through XML generator, Informatica automatically assigns a default prefix (i. An XML namespace gives the types defined in and XML schema a unique name - kind of like a sir name. Bob DuCharme. So, been doing a lot of work in Azure lately and having to solve problems I have not had to deal with before. xml_namespace_prefix must be a SQL Server identifier. Re: Please Help With XML Namespace in XQuery. XPath fully supports XML Namespaces. Each and every prefix name is associated with one URI. A namespace declaration is associated with an in-memory structure and all elements or attributes within that namespace point to it. Just as two Java classes can have the same name as long as they are defined in separate packages, two XML elements can have the same name as long as they belong to different namespaces. Use XmlNamespaceManager. The XML namespace is a special type of reserved XML attribute that you place in an XML tag. This is not usually. (0120) 425-6464. RELAX NG supports the use of both the default namespace and prefixes. The two main places where you use GPath expressions is when dealing with nested POJOs or when dealing with XML. It is similar to a database schema that describes the data in a database. Using XML namespaces, XML documents may contain element or attribute names from more than one XML vocabulary. Namespaces are used when you want both unique names for a large collection of things plus a convenient way of referring to each thing. Element; public class Utils { /** * Add a namespace prefix definition to an element. The widespread use of namespaces in XML messages and documents impacts how application developers must write their queries. Dare Obasanjo writes: "XML namespaces are an integral aspect of most of the W3C's XML recommendations and working drafts, including XPath, XML Schema, XSLT, XQuery, SOAP, RDF, DOM, and XHTML. The reserved attribute is actually more like a prefix that you attach to any namespace you create. This is not usually. specifies the default namespace declaration. 0 validity, to match the XML production for Name match this specification's production for NCName. Consult the XSD standard for more information on this. A URI (usually, a URL) is used to identify a particular collection of names. Start element with namespace: 5. Common Namespaces. For details see Section 6. As shown in Example 3-3, you can use namespaces to distinguish the tags. Namespaces and XSLT Stylesheets. In an ideal world, XML namespaces would have a simple, cohesive purpose: the representation of element and attribute names in an XML document. This document describes the interface for using XPath in JavaScript internally, in extensions, and from websites. DescendantsAndSelf()) { // Stripping the namespace by setting the name of the element to it's localname only XE. As of the last update of this document, the XML 1. Attributes and XML namespaces. A namespace definition begins with the keyword namespace followed by the namespace name as follows: namespace namespace_name { int x, y; // code declarations where // x and y are declared in // namespace_name's scope } Namespace declarations appear only at global scope. I will use XML to JSON to convert the transformed XML in to JSON. This video provides uses of the various XML namespaces in the Spring Framework that can be leveraged for configuring the Spring application context. …So the vast amounts of documentation…are still out. XmlTextReader provides direct parsing and tokenizing of XML and implements the XML specification as well as the namespaces in the XML specification from the W3C. This namespace specifies the unique names of the xAL. In this example I. You need to add namespace to Xml element or attribute. It is confusing for beginners in XML that the attributes of an element are not in a namespace if they don't have a proper namespace prefix. XML Database Types. But for others it is a general guideline to indicate what the XML should look like. Here now some information about Namespaces in Aif Xml-messages: An Aif Xml message is identified by namespaces on 3 locations: - the Xml-envelope (1) - the Aif-service (2) - the Xml-messageparts (3) + (4) According to my previous posting:. According to SAP help: You use this module to anonymize XML elements and attributes by removing namespaces or namespace prefixes from the XML document of the main payload. A namespace can have multiple files associated to it in a particular set and a file can be part of a multiple namespaces (due to the XML Schema concept of chameleons, whereby a file without a targetNamespace attributed defined for its schema element automatically assumes the targetNamespace of any and all files that include it). RELAX NG supports the use of both the default namespace and prefixes. They are defined in a W3C recommendation. As attribute nodes named "xmlns" or "xmlns:xxx", exactly as the namespaces are written in the source XML document. Below thread might be helpful:. See also: Part 1: Understanding XML Namespaces. LocalName; // replacing all attributes with attributes that are not namespaces and their names are set to only the localname XE. This is not usually. In writing XSD schemas, you can use the XSD targetNamespace attribute to specify a target namespace. Spring Overview. In order to resolve this conflict, the W3C namespace recommendation defines an attribute xmlns which can amend any XML element. for trivial xml it might me ignored, for everything else namespaces are extremely important. In XML, the XML namespace specification enables the names of elements and attributes in an XML document to be unique, similar to the role of namespaces in programming languages. As defined by the W3C Namespaces in XML Recommendation , an XML namespace is a collection of XML elements and attributes identified by an Internationalized Resource Identifier (IRI); this collection is often referred to as an XML "vocabulary. An XML document may use multiple namespaces simultaneously. Thus, the name of a node is modeled as a pair consisting of a local part and a possibly null namespace URI; this is called an expanded-name. Replace on the raw xml and replace the text you want gone with "". Seems easy enough… so let's have a look at the schema first:. This default behaviour. If there is a namespace declaration anywhere in the XML file, it is available for that element and all elements in its child tree. The assumption is I create a namespace only if I own the domain it uses and that I won't use the same identifier to identify several different things. Although it is often a URL, whatever document might be available at this URL is irrelevant and is not consulted during XML processing. Please try again later. If you are creating and modifying XML documents validating against XML Schema making use of namespaces, then XML Data Binding will save you a great deal of time as. I am trying to read a series of XML files that use a namespace and I have failed, thus far, to discover the proper syntax. Semantically, the dotNET and XML namespaces serve the same goal. Once you have the XML Schema Instance namespace available:. XML Namespaces Don't Need URIs. /// An Xml fragment with namespace replacement as required. IMS Content Packaging make heavy use of namespaces ! In addition most IMS and SCORM standards use XML Schema which are associated to XML contents via namespace declarations. Consult the XSD standard for more information on this. XQuery is designed to work well with XML content, allowing many convenient ways to search through XML elements and attributes as well as making it easy to output XML from an XQuery program. In this post I will cover how to control the prefixes that are used. will read through the complete XML document and output all namespace declarations found. If we make a query that goes into this part of the XML, we should declare two namespaces and use them both, each at the appropriate levels:. That is why you get invalid xpath there. The reserved attribute is actually more like a prefix that you attach to any namespace you create. Now that we've covered what namespaces are for and how they work, let's take a look at how they are handled in XPath and XSLT. SAX2 adds XML Namespace support, which is required for higher-level standards like XPath (used in XSLT, XPointer, XLink, and more), XML Schemas, RDF, and more. This module then can help the developer without writing long XSLT codes to achieve the result. We'll start with a Customer class that has no namespace information specified:. You can declare the namespace in any XML file in your Mule instance. You need to add namespace to Xml element or attribute. targetNamespace is used in XML Schemas and WSDL to identify and select the namespace into which new elements that your are defining are created in. XML Schema is commonly known as XML Schema Definition (XSD). Since the data is transferred out of S/4HANA via SOAP web service to CPI, a custom ABAP service consumer is generated from a custom WSDL, and that requires a namespace. For example, database of numbers, numbers representing molecular structure or a mathematical equation. XML Namespaces Introduction. XML names are often a source of complexity in XML programming.